Concerning Corroboration of Accusations of Sexual Misconduct in Christian Environments

Corroboration of Accusations of Sexual Misconduct

The Challenge

The World Reformed Fellowship (WRF) has been operative to yield assistance to a members with honour to a impediment of passionate bungle in Christian churches and organizations and a doing of accusations of such misconduct.  You competence see a swell we have finished here –

Recently in a United States, there has been a good bargain of contention about accusations of passionate attack opposite a hopeful for this country’s Supreme Court.  The primary accusations were associated to events that occurred many years earlier.  The contention surrounding these accusations has led us to comprehend that a element we have posted needs improvement.  

Many of those who continued to support a hopeful for a Supreme Court argued that a accusations finished opposite him (for actions committed thirty years earlier) could not be advanced or valid and, therefore, should not be deliberate by those creation a preference per his nomination.  It is expected that these arguments prevailed given his assignment was authorized and this sold has now been sworn in as a Supreme Court Justice.

The above routine led us to comprehend that a element on a website would be many some-more useful to Christian churches and organizations if we supposing superintendence with honour to these dual questions:

1) How competence Christian churches and classification emanate an middle atmosphere that encourages victims of any form of passionate bungle to promulgate with suitable people about their trust in a timely manner?

2) Other than a apparent forms of certification (eyewitness testimony by a third celebration or tangible video or audio recording of a event), what should “count” as corroboration?  In a request on a website, we news a routine by that accusations of bungle will be adjudicated (Item 3. B.).  But in light of a new events described above, we trust that a element would be many stronger and some-more useful if we were means to yield some fortify with honour to a matters mentioned in Items 3. B. v. c., d., e., and f.  In other words, for what certification competence those charged with creation a final visualisation look?

The second doubt listed above could infer generally useful to those who have been or competence be a victims of passionate misconduct.  It would yield superintendence to them with honour to a stairs they should take in a evident emanate of any such experience.   

We wrote to all WRF members to ask these dual questions.  We afterwards posted a questions of Facebook and requested those who are “friends” (but not indispensably members) of a WRF to respond.  Below are a responses we received.


Responses from WRF Members

Outside a USA

1.  From my unaccompanied rural experience, it appears to me that girls who were assaulted before age 15 frequently have symptoms of PTSD, mostly in a form of panic attacks. If a chairman never has panic attacks, we would wish outward justification to cruise a explain is credible.

2.  Thank we for a argent work regards passionate control fortify for a church. The request reflects a abyss of regard and suspicion that went into a benefaction form and formulation. It is also worthy that we are holding a benefaction emotive routine that preceded a appointment of a US Supreme Court into account.

 The news reports we have permitted to us in a nation were apparently unsound to entirely conclude a routine a US parliament and a open intent in. For these reasons we am wavering to make any comments over a tentative. So,  customarily some thoughts, not answers in particular.

 A.  It seems to me that a lady who brought charges opposite a hopeful was substantially speedy to do so by hostile parties to a nomination. She lived with what happened for decades and unexpected lifted a matter. In other difference a accusations substantially resulted as outcome of coercion. Not that that minimizes a complaint nonetheless a reason for defilement her overpower was encouraged by other factors (political?) than a indecorous poise of a masculine towards her many years back. Although a assignment was confirmed, there is a tarnish that will accompany both a prosecution and indicted for many years.

B   This brings me to a emanate during hand. Truth, for a accumulation of reasons, is during a low ebb. In SA trumped adult charges are infrequently brought opposite persons in probity and during times, it is said, that heavier/lighter sentences are infrequently upheld than what would differently have been a case. we would therefore advise that charges of a passionate inlet within a church context be dealt with tenderly for both a prosecution and a indicted formed on organisation charges/denials upheld by evidence.

C.   we cruise that presumably a passionate complaint can be valid or not, during a finish of a day, it has to be supposed that something unfavourable happened. This is a one law that is undeniable, something did take place. Unless of march a complaint is false. While a full brunt of church fortify and polite fortify competence not be brought to bear some form of Christian fortify ought to be deliberate formed on a fact that something did happen. But during a same time if a complaint is false, or serves as banking for a opposite purpose eg. domestic benefit that obscures/minimizes/exaggerates a passionate charges then, in a light of that, a Church contingency also cruise those matters in a deliberations.

3.  I’m fearful we prosaic out bustling during a impulse and a theme is an vicious one. we cruise we would find a Safe Church Code of Conduct of a Presbyterian Church of Victoria ( ) and a Breaking a Silence request of a Presbyterian Church of Australia in a State of New South Wales ( useful as Scriptural fortify expected to foster an sourroundings where abuse does not occur. The Victoria Code of Conduct is matching to a NSW one solely it omits domestic attack that we know is lonesome by other church rules.

So detached as procedures are concerned, laws change in opposite jurisdictions. But annals should be kept detached longer than 10 years. You unequivocally have to cruise in terms of 50 years. These embody worker records, given that increasingly government of stipulations supplies are being repealed and even a shortcoming of explanation being reversed.

You need a apparatus during Session turn for annual stipulation that no officebearer is wakeful of any issue, likewise during presbytery level. You need imperative observant to Police, even if not compulsory in law, of any supposed rapist act, and we need correct supplies for interviewing children and exposed adults. But review should not be finished by a church until a military have investigated.  Pastoral caring of offenders is also an emanate to be addressed. Much of this seems to be lonesome in a draft.

In a inlet of a box eccentric witnesses are frequency permitted so a credit of a parties comes into play. The biblical requirement of dual or 3 witnesses is infrequently deliberate met if there is some-more than one news by detached individuals. we cruise in Scotland this is called a Moorov doctrine. Sometimes a indicted celebration admits, and has occurred in my trust nonetheless if is not certified then….

A formidable area indeed.


4.  Thanks for your acquire email. Civil law is changing fast in Australia in propinquity to child passionate attack and people operative in this margin within a Presbyterian Church of Australia and a member state churches are operative diligently to respond in God-honouring ways. We are seeking to assemble these people on Nov 1 2 to allege a work and we trust that it would be useful for us to respond to your questions with one voice after a conference.

Might we observe that child reserve procedures are closely intertwined with disciplinary practices and  this indicate of communication has been extensively deliberate within a church on an ongoing basement for all of this year. When we promulgate again, we would wish to be means to share a training in this area for a caring – and, hopefully, a blessing – of all WRF members.


5.  Provided a firmness of samples can be assured, DNA tests can be useful in identifying a chairman indicted of passionate attack or rape, nonetheless are of tiny assistance in substantiating presumably passionate activity was consensual or not. Establishing that essential indicate is notoriously difficult, and brief of camera or third celebration watcher justification it is a word of a prosecution opposite a accused. The charge of a probity is not helped by prolonged delays in reporting, nonetheless in a UK, DNA justification has solved rape cases from as detached behind as a 1980s.

As a primogenitor we would like to cruise (perhaps naively) that a children would have shared, presumably with me or their mother, or both of us, any attack or violation. But as it competence good have concerned them in activity of that they knew we would debate it is rarely probable that they would not have told us. If we were starting all over again, in a stream feverish climate, we cruise it would be good to work out with a children some correct third celebration in whom they could disclose (and who would make a created record) if they felt they could not tell us. If they were after to tell us, we would, with their permission, have entrance to that record.

As an aside, some-more problem has been caused currently by President Trump’s avowal that Justice Kavanaugh has been ‘proven innocent’ of assaulting Dr Ford. In a eyes of a law, Justice Kavanaugh IS trusting until proven guilty, and his ignorance does not have to be valid ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ as does his guilt. The many hapless impact of a MeToo transformation has been a bent to mishandle a order of law and criticise a hypothesis of innocence. Justice can't be built on relocating testimony, no matter how sincere, customarily a order of law practical to a contribution of a box can do that.

Maybe a universe can now start to see a trust of a third outcome open to a Scottish Court. As good as a verdicts of guilty and not guilty, there is also a outcome of ‘not proven’, on that a indicted is transparent and continues to be trusting in a eyes of a law. That is taken to meant that a decider and/or a jury suspicion it expected a indicted was guilty, nonetheless did not have sufficient legally permitted justification to convict. Unlike a outcome ‘not guilty’, ‘not proven’ doesn’t justify though a mark on a character, so on a travel it is taken to meant ‘guilty nonetheless we mustn’t do it again or else!’


6.  My remarks on a papers are that it is created merely from a Western contrition / emancipation viewpoint and a non-Western contrition enlightenment and fear enlightenment perspectives are not reckoned with.

To explain, here is an example:

Gulzel clinging in Jesus as a university student. The summary by that she supposed Christ was sincerely standard: “Your transgressions detached we from God; therefore we merit punishment. Jesus died for your sin. Believe in him, and your sins will be forgiven.” Her faith was genuine and real. Her sins were forgiven and she enjoyed new life in Christ. But as a Central Asian, Gulzel faced unaccompanied situations that emancipation could not entirely address.

One Sunday evening, Gulzel was returning to a city from her mom’s residence in a village. The cab she entered had a masculine motorist and 3 masculine passengers. After a brief while a group began mouth-watering Gulzel to their homes for tea and propositioning her. As a immature lady she felt worried and attempted to downplay a situation. Halfway by a ride, a group stopped for a turn of vodka shots along a road. Being intoxicated, a group became physically aggressive. At customarily that moment, Gulzel beheld her uncle in an approaching car, streamer in her direction. But instead of jumping into a highway and flagging her uncle down, Gulzel hid. She did not wish her uncle to see her. Gulzel’s primary regard in that impulse was avoiding contrition and progressing family honor. A few years later, Gulzel’s hermit died. Her family mourned a tragedy, generally given he played a unaccompanied purpose as a family’s oldest son. A few weeks after his death, Gulzel began carrying unchanging dreams of her brother. While she was asleep, spirits in a association of her hermit worried her. When Gulzel mentioned a dim dreams to her family, she was told to eat mud from a brother’s gravesite to damp a spirits. Gulzel preferred energy over a devout area to shun torture and find peace. Though truly forgiven of her sins, Gulzel indispensable to trust God’s shelter from contrition and fear, as good as guilt. Gulzel, as with many Christians in a infancy world, requires a three-dimensional gospel of God’s forgiveness, honor, and power.   [Georges, Jayson. The 3D Gospel: Ministry in Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures (Kindle Locations 116-124).  Kindle Edition. (This book is unequivocally useful to know that a Christian Gospel is like a solid with several facets of that guilt/forgiveness is customarily one.)

In contrition cultures it is intensely formidable for ladies to display passionate abusers. In such cultures church leaders have such a high and clever hierarchical position it is roughly unfit to request biblical beliefs of church discipline.

In Africa where a fear enlightenment and magic are mostly widespread underneath a aspect even among Christians, passionate abuse of ladies by church leaders is rampant. In a harangue on this issue, Conrad Mbewe from Zambia once explained that in some African communities pastors are simply seen as magician doctors.


Inside a USA

1.  It is a formidable question. Almost all passionate predator situations can't be corroborated, and nonetheless they competence have (many if not many times) happened. we am not certain of a answer nonetheless we know we am beholden for Dr. Ford seeking to put a law out there – even if it isn’t advanced and if she bears a weight of her story. We can customarily do what we can do, nonetheless we conclude when one has a bravery to step forward.

2.  we am going to take a a position on this that will be on one of a dual detached ends of thisdiscussion, that comes from my trust on Sessions whose decisions have finished repairs to a annoyed party, in many cases a woman, nonetheless not always, who we have not served good by permitting church leaders who have committed attack or gross impiety of any kind to continue in office.

In short, a recidivism rate should be zero, by approach of discipline.

I trust that passionate or earthy violence, opposite anybody, is frightful In a caring of a church.

Certainly, despotic standards of law contingency be celebrated in deliberation any case.

I won’t go into specific cases during this point, nonetheless this will give we a feel for where I’m entrance from.

And we have seen cases in that impiety has been forgiven and emancipation modeled. But, we have to face a fact that there are too many times when we error in preference of a sinner whose impiety indemnification a sheep in a care.


3.  In my mind, a pivotal partial of a answer to both questions asked is larger ubiquitous recognition about a dynamics and impacts of passionate abuse. Understanding a energy energetic and a deep, low impacts will give us larger caring toward those who have been hurt. It competence assistance keep us from a all-too-common “victim blaming”, that works to overpower those who have gifted abuse. Understanding some-more about how mishap affects a mind can assistance us improved form amatory relations with those who have suffered abuse. In addition, meaningful informed patterns in violent relations will assistance us commend abuse, forestall it, and reason accountable those who commit it. Even though corroborating eye-witnesses, these common patterns can be seen and concurred for what they are, giving bargain into a discernment. For example, so many can be schooled simply by a approach someone who is confronted with an explain responds, nonetheless customarily when we know these common patterns and what to demeanour for. Education to build larger recognition is critical.

What we would indicate to as a potentially useful apparatus is this: Responding to Abuse: A Toolkit for Churches  –   (this is a initial edition, we are in a routine of removing feedback and wish to see improvements in a destiny addition). Though it is designed to be a small, permitted resource, it links to other articles and resources for those who wish to learn more.

We also have a territory on a Safe Church website ( ) clinging to church personality bungle that has additional resources ( ).


4.  Victims of passionate bungle and other misdeeds should always be believed, as this can be an vicious partial of their healing.  At a same time, trusting parties should be irreproachable when they are secretly accused, generally if they are indicted of passionate misconduct.  Very unfortunately, we can't know who is truly a plant or who has been secretly indicted though some investigation.  And even then, we competence not know for certain who is revelation a truth.

The stipulations of a trust make it crucially vicious for a church or other Christian classification to settle a transparent customary for evidence.  In a United States, some organizations use a “preponderance of a evidence” standard, in that even somewhat some-more justification on one side than a other is sufficient to settle a claim.  This customary of justification creates it easier for a victim’s explain to be established, and also opens a wider doorway to fake accusations.

For a conference court, a customary of justification is “beyond a reasonable doubt.”  This is a many aloft weight of explanation that strongly protects a indicted from fake accusations, nonetheless also creates it harder for a loyal plant to get a customarily verdict.

The customary or justification for a grand jury complaint is somewhere in between “preponderance of evidence” and “beyond a reasonable doubt.”  Here a customary is “clear and convincing evidence.”

Each of these standards of explanation competence be suitable in opposite resources or for opposite organizations.  What is maybe many vicious is for any routine of adjudication to make a customary clear.

Depending on a customary for proof, there competence good be situations where a adjudicators are disposed to trust a victim, and nonetheless establish that there is deficient justification to strech a outcome opposite a accused.  Knowing a customary of justification competence also assistance a plant endorse presumably to move an accusation.

A.iii  says “presumed trusting until proven guilty.”  This is a unequivocally high customary of proof—one that many victims of passionate bungle will not be means to meet.  It should be famous that a denunciation of “proven” is a visualisation call.

A.i   says that churches and organizations “must make certain” that no fake declare is borne; this is not a customary that many people can meet.  It competence be improved to contend “must essay to ensure,” or something a tiny reduction declaratory.

Outside review by experts competence be useful in a routine of adjudication.  However, a management of any eccentric review is derivative, and in a finish a govenring physique of a church or other Christian classification has to take shortcoming for a decisions.  The “Suggestions” pronounce of “recommendations” from outward investigators.  This seems appropriate.  However, B.v.g says “the required action,” that seems to indicate that a recommendation of a eccentric investigators is mandatory.  It competence be improved to contend “The officers shall afterwards take whatever movement they trust is warranted, etc.” or difference to that effect.

Considered as a whole, a “Suggestions” request could some-more clearly clear beliefs of physic justice, including a probability of settlement between victims and perpetrators.

With honour to what depends as corroboration, fundamentally this will always be a visualisation call.  The fact that a plant has common his or her story with a crony or advisor before to entrance forward—whether recently or in a detached past—does not yield many in a approach of corroboration.  The many that a crony or advisor can contend is that a supposed plant pronounced that he or she was victimized.  Which brings a decider behind to a same place: a supposed plant claims to have been harmed.


Responses from non- WRF Members


Inside a USA

1.  we know this is unequivocally critical business and hits many hearts nonetheless there are some who are innocents who are removing mistreat from all these TV discussions. we am certain many people are carrying peep backs from conference all these things being brought out. Who helps us get behind to a gentle place once all a aged stories come behind to haunt you.

First, if Dr. Ford’s statements we have listened on TV are loyal we would wish to hear from others if this unequivocally happened. That said, we would wish we knew my daughter adequate to comprehend she was revelation a truth. If she was attending these forms of parties though my trust we would not totally trust her word. We would have to have discussions on given she didn’t let me know she was going and given did she keep on going.  we was always told my relatives if we didn’t like a conditions we was in keep income accessible and call a cab to get out of there.But many importantly, get out of there if it was unsafe. we took them unequivocally seriously. My customarily instance from high propagandize was a expel celebration we attended people drank and were removing unequivocally drunk. we wasn’t certain what would happen.  It was late nonetheless we got to a compensate phone and called my parents.

I trust something unequivocally bad happened to Dr. Ford nonetheless we was not totally assured it was Brett K. At parties like this people do observe and know what is going on. With all her work with a Psychiatrist things would have come clearer for her to remember something like w here it happened during least. we remember a residence and a behind yard where we was examination my throng get drunk, Bonfire blazing and feeling unequivocally fearful of a approach they were acting.

I had been in an violent matrimony and got out. The abuse was some-more romantic and psychological than earthy we was 22 when it happened. we was aggrieved by this and nonetheless fearful to let anyone know of fear going on during home. Trauma is trauma. We were unequivocally concerned in church, girl leaders. we attempted to speak to parents, pastors etc… They attempted to know nonetheless they couldn’t trust what was function to me during home. He hid things unequivocally well. Years after we got out of this horror, we went for assistance given we was removing peep backs and carrying a formidable time committing to another relationship. Reliving a fear with my therapist was severe nonetheless revelation people about it is customarily as terrible any time we contingency tell it. So now we tell no one. If they ask we tell them  when we repeat a story to many people they are frightened and do not find it a good to hear. It also creates me shake inside and get utterly dissapoint for days after even now. we would not cruise Dr. Ford enjoyed revelation her story nonetheless she didn’t seem to remember a lot that competence be good for her. we urge to God for assistance with this bland when we have bad days, that observant this on TV for so many weeks move behind all my bad times and relive them. we am not certain this is a answer we are looking for nonetheless we know these are critical charges she brought adult opposite him and if they were loyal someone would have know something about BK and these parties and what he had finished to uphold her story generally with immature people.  Dr. Logan, we cruise certification of some arrange is needed. we couldn’t infer my story we had no bruises nonetheless mentally and to my essence they were there. God is recovering me nonetheless it is unequivocally tough to forget.


2.  we was pawed and groped by 3 opposite group in high propagandize when they any gathering me home after babysitting.  I never pronounced anything to my parents. There would have been no corroboration.  Just refused baby sitting jobs from them in a future. we am certain that was a common response.


3.  we would wish her to tell me. The other sum about a celebration wouldn’t matter. What my daughter pronounced happened is all we need to hear. Women know when they are being assaulted and sadly it is never lost from their memory. Maybe suppressed for a while nonetheless it’s always in their body.


4.  Unfortunately, those who we know who were childish victims did accurately as Dr. Ford. They did not news a occurrence and did not tell their parents.  Corroboration? Only a perp could have supposing that. we don’t explain imagination or personal knowledge, nonetheless it seems to me that a trail selected by Dr. Ford is not uncommon. we positively cruise many group will have a tough time relating. we found her convincing and found a lot of out and out lies on Judge Kavanaugh’s testimony. So a beam sloping one approach for me.


5.  Part of a certification occurred when people spoke of Kavanaugh’s impression and celebration function during that time, nonetheless people chose to omit or not to listen. The review of all a contribution was also unequivocally weak. Many others could have been interviewed, generally about a contribution surrounding a box (e.g. if, when, and where did a celebration happen). There is some-more to certification than a act itself, in my opinion.


6.  we too was molested over a duration of years by a same man. When we told my mom, she pronounced not to make adult stories about a neighbors. When someone else indicted him…correctly….. my Dad stood adult for this monster. You cruise we would tell anyone else? we told my children that they could tell me……and my daughter told me and a father of one of her friends. This father found out a man had a reputation. He was reported to a police. We didn’t see him around many after that.


7.  [I would suggest] FETI (Forensic Experiential Trauma Interview), an talk technique for traffic with mishap victims, given their notice of a eventuality is not that routinely dealt with by Law Enforcement officers:

Quoting from a related page:

Currently, many rapist investigations concentration on dual vital categories of justification – earthy justification and commemorative evidence. This justification is found by estimate crime scenes, collecting DNA and other profitable earthy evidence, and collecting commemorative justification by interviews and interrogations. Often ignored and underappreciated, however, is a category of justification called debate physiological evidence. This justification is formed on documented psychological and earthy reactions to a crime gifted or witnessed by an individual. These reactions can embody nausea, flashbacks, flesh rigidity, trembling, terror, memory gaps, sights, sounds, smells, or other psychological or earthy responses to a experience.

Sexual attack investigations competence furnish tiny or no earthy justification due to a inlet of a crime, generally if customarily “constructive force” (non-violent earthy force) is used by a offender. Traditional commemorative justification can be altered both by bad cognitive memories and impact of highlight and mishap on those memories.

Wider use of these techniques (with their larger bargain of neuroscience) competence change what is regarded as “evidence”, generally for “no witness” crimes.


8.  we work in a prisons here in Rhode Island. Group and Individual work. we use a ACE investigate and a International ACE. Most of my clients endorse 6 out of 10 on a ACE. we find a International fits for not customarily my Immigrant clients nonetheless many of those questions also simulate middle city practice as well. we visited El Salvador during their fight and have customarily selected to live and lift my children in a middle city where those concerns are mostly roughly subsequent door.  [ACE is a magnitude of “Adverse Childhood Experiences” that have lifelong effects or clever association with disastrous outcomes.  See  and ]


9.  Defensiveness and indignation need to be explored. You should take a wider and deeper demeanour during someone who claims soundness that goes opposite what other people are observant they celebrated during that time in question. The emanate is not that he or she were bad people with bad behaviors. The emanate is not presumably a survivor is or isn’t revelation a law or misremembering. The emanate is about being honest about childish indiscretions that were damaging to self and others; owning it with integrity, honesty, and caring toward those who were presumably unintentionally harmed.


10. There are a few points that are blank here. One, many teenagers survivors do not news due to a enlightenment generally a enlightenment during that time, and second law coercion during that time did not do a good pursuit of following adult if there was no rape kit.

The idea that people would distortion about something function is concerning, many women and group who are intimately abused were not during a time emotionally lunatic until after a incident.

Something happened, with that note, a people who causes these offenses do not see them as offenses customarily as moments of time and customarily what happens when we are young. The contextual inlet of this contention in stream times does not compare a moment. Children currently as early as 4 know what to do when overwhelmed in a disastrous way.  we can contend more… as a masculine of #metoo it took until my forties to conduct a issues. we work with a therapist as good as assimilated support groups…I was 11 and was abused until 13 by a good child on a retard that everybody trusted.  It is customarily someone we know and it is customarily someone your family likes… we am not observant a decider did it we am observant something happened and instead of contend she was wrong how about he does not remember. Most mistreat is on a minds of those who are spoiled not on a minds of those who kept going with their lives not even meaningful they did harm. My abuser by a approach died of cancer years ago… we never spoke about and he would call during me as an adult if he saw me.  we wish him no ill will. we had to go forward. So competence indicate is unless we have a practice or a discourse with those of us who have been by this this suspicion practice is a form of mistreat finished to a populations that is still recovering … some topics are not general, they move behind adult those moments.  It takes bravery …my daughter has always told me when she felt vulnerable or was harassed…but she is also complicated martial humanities and can urge her self…sorry if we am wayward nonetheless we wanted we to know… we find your views useful and balancing that is given we motionless to tell you. Have a good day. 


11.  we find this to be a formidable theme and had and continue to have many issues with how a acknowledgment emanate was noticed and handled.  Maybe my problem with a emanate stems from being both a mom of boys as good as a mother of a pastor.  To cruise that they could be cursed formed on a testimony of one person…. But, even detached from that, entrance from a authorised background, we felt that too good an importance was on a tension and not on contribution and proof and a order of law.  At work, we have had many discussions with other attorneys as we represented both accusers as good as those indicted of attack and nuisance claims.  One of a problems is that some “corroborating evidence” can be done if one is so disposed to do so, nonetheless we would wish that people of faith would not be so vicious or unjust….  Also, generally for cases that are “he said/she said”, if all that is left to bottom a integrity is on a credit of a accuser/accused, there is too many room for good injustice.  One problem is that credit hinges on what a testifying chairman believes to be true, not what in fact is true.  Another problem is that credit can be influenced by a witness’ characteristics unconditionally detached from truth of a matter.  To make determinations formed on credit alone is too frightful and too disposed to unfair results.  No consternation a Bible requires dual or some-more witnesses…

 That said, my thoughts as to corroborating justification are as follows:

Other witnesses – these competence not indispensably be witnesses who saw a supposed misconduct, nonetheless witnesses who are good informed with a accuser/accused and can yield information about a attribute between accuser/accused or about opposite aspects of a supposed misconduct.  Assuming that both a prosecution and indicted have taken caring to follow a protocols and procedures of not formulating situations where such assault/ bungle can take place, there should be others who are informed with a bungle in question.  For instance, a declare competence not have seen a bungle and so can't confirm/deny that a supposed bungle occurred, nonetheless can confirm/deny that a prosecution and indicted were together or had a eventuality for a bungle to occur.   A declare competence have seen a indicted after a eventuality and can yield information as to a how a indicted seemed (distraught, dreaming …)  

Also, even if a bungle is not a unaccompanied dire event, nonetheless rather prolonged tenure “grooming” or corrupted relationship, others should be means to yield justification as to conversations or interactions between a accuser/accused.  This form of corroborating justification competence be formidable to obtain while perplexing to say a trusted inlet of a investigation. 

Contemporaneous records finished by accuser/accused – records finished during or nearby a time of a events available tend to be given larger weight.  So, from a viewpoint of a accuser, instead of customarily revelation someone about what has happened, put a contribution (who, what, where, when, etc.) on paper, even if it is a personal journal.  While it positively is distinct that a prosecution competence not be in a support of mind to write it out, created record of what occurred would be deliberate “corroborating” evidence.

Email communications/texts between accuser/accused or about accuser/accused – created association between a accuser/accused would be rarely applicable to any accusation.  While we would cruise communications between prosecution and indicted after a occurrence should be discouraged, generally to strengthen a accuser, created association post-occurrence should also be analyzed.

There has to be a change between desiring a prosecution while during a same time self-denial visualisation until complaint has been determined (whether to a over a reasonable doubt customary or some-more expected than not standard).  While we should bewail a approach passionate attack and victims have been treated in a past, we can't right a past misapplication by permitting a pendulum to pitch in a other instruction to concede for misapplication opposite a accused.  Injustice is misapplication no matter a theme of a injustice.

I wish this is useful and severely conclude all that we are doing to residence this issue.

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